[牛排专题4]10个有趣有料的事实!| Q&A

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这是

牛排专题的最后一期

统一解决一下chooers问过的问题

PS:Chooers是我对你们的爱称哟

??

1

牛的等级是怎样分的?How to grade beef?

不同的国家有不同的分级标准。

Various from country to country.

不同国家根据牛只的骨架(carcass),肉质的成熟度(maturity), 油花分布(marbling),脂肪颜色(fat colour),屠宰年龄(cut aging)……等各项标准来评鉴。

Different countires will grade the beef according to the critria of carcass, maturity, marbling, fat colour, cut aging and so on.

各评定机构评定系统对比

Comparison of international beef grading systems

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根据以上标准,不同国家对牛肉的最后等级分级不太一样。

Different countries have different grades for the beef.

?美国|America:

8个等级,由高级到低级分别为:U.S.D.A. Prime,U.S.D.A. Choice?,U.S.D.A. Select?,U.S.D.A. Standard?,U.S.D.A. Commercial,?U.S.D.A. Utility?,U.S.D.A. Cutter?,U.S.D.A. Canner.

Grades: 8 grades, from premium to low are listed above.

?澳洲牛肉|Australian beef:

3个等级,从低级到高级分别为:MSA three star (MSA Graded), MSA four star (Premium quality) and MSA five star (Supreme quality).

Grades: 3 grades, from low to high are listed above.

?澳洲和牛|Australian Wagyu:

根据油花情况分为7级,MS 3-9級(Marble score range),数字越高,等级越高。也就是说,MS9最高级。

7 point scale, from MS 3-9, but only looks at marbling as the criteria. The higher number indicates a more premium beef.

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?日本和牛|Japanese Wagyu:

根据肉质等级,由高到低分为A5,A4,A3,A2,A1。另外,除了A1-A5的分级外,根据油花分布的状况将牛肉由差到好分为BMS 3-12(Beef Marble score)。

According to the beef quality, grading from A5( best quality) to A1(poor quality). Also, according to the marbling, ?it can be graded from BMS 3-12.

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2

澳洲和牛MS9等级是否可以等于日本和牛A5等级?

Australian Wagyu MS9=Japanese Wagyu A5?

不!澳州MS9大概只能到日本和牛A3级水平。

No. Australian MS9 is about Japanese A3.

说到牛肉界的帝王,一定非日本和牛莫属了!A5级的日本和牛绝对值得牛肉资深爱好者朝圣。当然,前提是你得是个壕!

The king of beef must be Japanese Wagyu! A5 Japanese Wagyu is worth those who really love beef to have a try. Of course, you need to be able to afford it!

3

牛肉的评级是谁评的?Who grades?

不同的国家有不同的评定机构。

Various from country to country.

较出名的是以下4个国家级官方机构,也是上表中提及的机构:

4 well known official agencies grade beef around the world:

澳洲的MSA(Meat Standards Australia)

美国的USDA(United States Department of Agriculture)

日本的JMGA(Japan Meat Grading Association)

欧洲的EUROP(European Beef Grading System)

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4

为什么只有较高级的牛肉才做牛排?

Why is only premium beef used for steak?

关乎口感问题。

All about the texture.

以美国牛肉为例,一般在市面上买到的美国牛排都是来自prime/choice(有时可以见到select等级)的牛肉。

那其它等级的牛为什么不做牛排?因为美国牛肉的等级最主要是根据牛只的屠宰年龄和油花情况来决定的。等级较低的牛肉因为牛只年龄较老,油花少使得牛排口感老韧,缺乏风味。

Take American beef as an example. The steaks you can get from the market are usually made from prime/choice beef (sometimes you can get Select ones as well).

So why do the other grades not make steak? The key grading criteria of American beef is the degree of marbling and degree of maturity. In this case, low grade beef are usually tough and lack flavour because of old age and no marble fat.

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评级

5

牛排的等级=牛肉的等级吗?

Grades of the steaks=grade of the beef?

可以等于,可以说不等于。

Could be YES, could be NO.

等级是针对牛肉来评定的。而评定牛排的品质,严格来说我认为要分两个元素来理解:1.牛肉的等级, 2.部位,也就是我们说的切块。最高级的牛排应该是高等级的牛肉加上好的切块,譬如高级的美国牛排可以是U.S.D.A. Prime 的 菲力牛排。

The grading system is mainly for the beef. For evaluating a steak’s quality, strictly speaking,two factors need to be taken into consideration: 1. the grade of the beef; 2. the area of the cow (cut of the beef). The most premium steak should be the highest grade of beef plus the best cut. For example, a premium american steak could be U.S.D.A. Prime fillet.

6

较生的牛排不卫生?

Raw steak is unhygenic?

不会。

No.

当然前提是牛只健康,牛肉的质量和卫生状况都达标!

我曾经非常抗拒吃较生口感的牛排的一个主要原因是:这玩意不适合东方人。血淋淋的牛排吃下去肯定会拉肚子吧!然鹅,牛排的细菌都在表面,经过高温烹饪是可以杀死的。

Of course it should be on the basis that it is from a healthy cow, is good quality beef and has been handled hygenically.

I used to refuse having a rare steak. One of the main reasons is: this thing is not for an Asian palate.

However, all the bacteria are on the surface of the steak, which can be killed by searing it at high temperature.

7

怎样定义新鲜的牛排?

How to define a fresh steak?

不能用中国式的思维来定义。

Don’t think in a Chinese way.

不管是肉类还是蔬菜类,我们定义的新鲜大概就是“刚刚生产出来的,存放时间短”。大家也许没有想到很多时候我们吃到的美味牛排/牛肉都是经过数10天,甚至上月的熟成过程(beef aging)。熟成的过程有助于增加牛肉的嫩度,风味和汁水。以后大家不用质疑20多天前宰的牛肉究竟还能不能吃。其实只要牛肉肉色鲜红,手感质地正常,没异常气味的话,都算是新鲜的牛肉哦!

No matter whether meat or vegetable, we define fresh as “just produced and have not kept for long”. You might not think that the delicious beef we have had has been aging for 10 days or so, or even up to a month. Beef aging can tenderise the meat, enhance flavour and increase juiceness. Don’t need to doubt that the cow that is slaughtered 20 days ago is still fresh or not. In fact, if the meat appears bright red, texture is right and no strange smell, that is still fresh beef.

8

不同饲料喂养的影响?

The feeding’s impact?

影响牛肉的肉质口感。

Impact on the texture and flavour .

譬如纽澳,阿根廷的牛以青草放牧饲育,肉质较纤瘦而具嚼感;美加取玉米谷物为饲料,以科学化圈养而成,运动量低,自然柔嫩肥腴,口感多汁带甜。

For example, New Zealand, Australian and Argentinian beef are mainly free range and fed by grass. Therefore, their meat is leaner. The American and Canadian beef are mainly fed by corn and grain and raised in scientific feed lots. In this case, the cows move less and the meat will be more fatty and more juicy.

9

美国安格斯牛竟然不是源自美国?

American Angus not originally from America?

嗯,源自苏格兰。

It originates from Scotland.

在美国众多品种的牛肉中,包括海福特牛(Hereford),盖普威牛( Gelbvieh), 圣格鲁迪牛(Santa Gertrudis) 和 安格斯牛(Angus), 公认最好吃莫过于是Angus种了!虽然我们现在在市面上看到的安格斯牛肉认证是来自美国农业部(USDA)的,记住,安格斯牛(Angus)这个品种是缘于苏格兰的哦。

Among many breeds of American beef, including Hereford, Gelbvieh, Santa Gertrudis and Angus, the most tasty one must be Angus! Although Angus originates from Scotland, the Angus grading we now we see in the market is done by the USDA.

10

日本和牛真的“喝啤酒,听音乐,享受按摩”?

Japanese Wagyu really “drink beer, listen to music & get massage”?

的确有这样的做法,但是并没啥科学根据。

Yes,but not scientifically proven.

在日本被视为“国宝”的和牛不但每天活在仙境一般的牧场,而且它们可谓享尽人间高级待遇!饲养员还必须给牛按按摩,播放一些“和牛”喜欢的旋律优美的音乐,目的是调节它们的心情,给它们营造一个轻松,快乐的生长环境。据说,控制好牛的脾气,性格和情绪是培育出顶级牛肉的至关条件!

至于喝啤酒吧,其实就是在牛的饲料中加入一定啤酒糟(不是啤酒),来帮助牛更好地消化。

In Japan, Wugyu from Kobe is treated as a treasure. They are living in a premium farm and receiving premium “service”. The farmers have to massage the cow and play some light music. The purpose is to let them maintain a happy mood, which it is believed is vital to produce the high class beef. About drinking beer, in fact, the beef are feed on beer to stimulate their appetite.

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