[牛排专题2]好好做牛排!|Master cooking a steak!

steak1

不开玩笑,在自家的厨房,没有专业的设备,没有各种西式调料,只有一只平底锅也能轻松煎出一块高级餐厅般的牛排!

I’m not kidding, you are in your home kitchen, without professional equipment and different kinds of western spices and you only have a frying pan, but you can still easily make a restaurant style steak.

怎样煎一块完美牛排

How to pan fry a perfect steak

 

食材和锅|Ingredients&pan

牛排(225克,2cm 厚),盐和黑椒,黄油,蒜头,花生油和一只厚重的平底锅。

Steak(225g,2cm thick),salt and pepper, butter, garlic, peanut oil and a heavy bottom pan.

steak_ingredients

关于选锅|About the pan

煎牛排最关键的是有一只厚重的铁锅(最好是铸铁锅)。带烤槽不带烤槽还是次要,最重要的是平底锅受热蓄热好!如果把牛排放进薄身的锅,锅里的温度会一下子降低,导致牛排不能高温受热。理论上,带槽的锅可以在煎烤过程中隔开牛排渗出的汁水,避免牛排表面泡在汁水中,使牛排充分受热。然而,经过我们实践证明,不带槽的平底锅也能持续提供均匀的超高温,做出来的成品其实没有太大区别。所以,用一只厚重的铸铁锅,管它带槽不带槽!PS:我这里选用的是带槽的锅,只因没格纹的牛排会被我嫌弃啊!情结情结啊:))
The key to a pan seared steak is selecting a heavy bottomed pan ( best with cast iron). With or without grill tray is secondary, while a good heat conducting and heat keeping pan is primary. The problem with a thin pan is that the moment you put your steak into the pan, the temperature of the pan will reduce in an instant, which will stop frying the steak over high heat. Theoretically, using a grill ?pan, the juice comes out from the steak when frying and can be seperated with the steak, which will avoid the steak soaking in the juice which helps to better form the crust on the surface. However, a good heavy bottom pan can also provide constant and even high heat. Therefore, choose a heavy bottom pan and you don’t need to worry if it has grill marks or not!

关于牛排|About the steak

不管你选的是和牛,安格斯牛,谷饲还是草饲的牛肉,西冷,肉眼还是菲力牛排,最基本的一点是牛排要够新鲜够厚!有一块新鲜的厚切牛排才能谈所谓的层次。一块完美的牛排应该有的层次:上下两侧为焦化层,呈熟肉棕色,向中心处转为粉色再然后最中心为鲜肉色。No matter what kind of beef you choose, Wagyu, Angus, grain feed or grass feed, Sirlon, rib eye or fillet, the basic rule is to choose a fresh thick cut over a thin one.A perfect steak should be layered: A perfect beautiful dark brown outer crust that gradually turn from pink to a juicy fresh meat center.
完美牛排的层次|Layers of a perfect steaksteak_layers相反,煎一块薄薄的牛排的悲剧是:一放锅一下子就是全熟了!厨艺MAX的人表示无趣不好玩!Only a thick cut steak can deliver so called “layers” of flavour. Its no fun to do a thin cut steak that is very easy to overcook.

关于油和盐|About oil & salt

建议选择烟点高的油,譬如色拉油,花生油或芥花油。烟点高的油一方面在高温煎牛排时能避免油变质而产生大量油烟,另一方面烟点高的油不容易煎焦。一般来说,植物油会比动物油,黄油和橄榄油的烟点要高。
粗粒的海盐可以增加牛排的层次感。什么是层次感?就是每一口都夹杂着多种复合味道和口感。粗盐可以让盐不均匀的分布在牛排焦化层上,从而丰富舌尖上的味觉体验。
Here we suggest you choose a high smoking point oil, such as vegetable oil, peanut oil or canola oil . A high smoking oil will, on the one hand, avoid the oil going bad and producing a huge amount of smoke over high heat, on the other hand, using a high smoking point oil will not easily burn. Generally speaking, vegetable oil’s smoking point is higher than animal oil, olive oil or butter.
Coarse seasalt can increase the flavor layers of a steak. What is flavour layer? It means every bit combines different flavours and textures. Using coarse seasalt means the salt is unevenly sprikled over the steak, which will create the flavour layers to your taste.

步骤|Instructions

100个大厨可能有100种煎牛排的方法。他们步骤和细节上的不同其实最终目的都是为了更好地让牛排表面焦化的同时,尽量锁住排内的肉汁,呈现一块鲜嫩多汁熟度合适口感味道丰富带层次的成品!做出这样的牛排才是我们说的不辜负一块好肉。跟着我们的步骤,你也可以在家轻松做出来这样一块牛排!

100 chefs may have 100 ways of frying a steak. Despite the differences of their steps and details, all aim to achieve the same result. That is to form a crust on the surface, at the same time, keeping the juice inside as much as possbile and finally present a tender, juicier, right textured and richly flavoured steak. This is the steak we called “not spoil a good cut of meat”. Actually, you can make such a perfect steak at home if you follow the following steps!

预处理|PRIOR TO COOKING

牛排放至室温,用厨房纸吸干表面的水分;在牛排两面均匀涂抹油,撒上盐和黑椒并轻轻按压一下,让调料更好融进肉中。

Let the steak come to room temperature and dry the surface with kitchen towel; rub the oil on two sides and season with sea salt and freshly ground black pepper; slightly press the surface to let the spices go in the meat.

steak_spice

 

小贴士

让牛排先放至常温非常重要!|Room temperature

让牛排先放至常温非常重要!一来牛排进锅时仍可以保持锅内高温,二来可以确保牛排快速均匀受热,减少烹饪时间。试想一下将一块刚从冰箱拿出来的牛排直接放进锅中,此时锅内的温度会迅速下降,同时,牛排需要在锅中“解冻”,这样很容易造成受热不均,表面很容易煎焦煎糊而内层很难马上受热。
This ensures a more even cooking process and permits the steak to spend much less time in the pan or on the grill, which will lead to a juicier steak. Imagine you take the steak out from the fridge and put into a hot pan directly. In this case, the temperature of the pan will drop instantly. At the same time, the steak needs to come up to temperature in the pan, which will lead to uneven cooking and the surface will easily burn but the inside is still raw.

正式烹饪|GET COOKING

1.

锅热后(一定要达到非常高的温度,可以看到锅子微微冒烟),将牛排垂直于烤槽纹放进锅子(垂直放只是为了后面能更容易把握整齐的纹格哦),此时发出强烈的“zha zha zha”声就对了!期间轻轻按压牛排,让牛排更好受热。

Heat the pan ( ensure it is very hot; can see slight smoke over the pan); put the steak into the pan vertically to the grill marks( putting the steak vertically can make controlling the grill marks easier later). At this time, there is fierce heat from the pan; lightly press down the steak to let it cook evenly.

steak_grill

2.

1分钟后,翻转牛排(依然垂直于烤槽);同样轻轻按压一下表面。

After 1 minute, flip over the steak ( also put vertically to the grill marks); lightly press down the steak like above.

steak_flip

 

小贴士

翻转一次还是翻转多次?|The flip method

最经典最流行的方法是翻转一次法。很多大厨认为在煎牛排的整个过程中只翻转一次的话能形成更丰富且口感更好的焦化层,从而封住肉汁。我觉得这个方法很讲经验,而且比较冒险,因为你要对翻转的时间把握得非常准确才不至于翻得太早或翻迟了。
The flip once method is the classic and most popular way to pan fry steaks. Many chefs believe that to flip the steak only once during the entire cooking process helps to form a rich crust. However, a challenge with this method is to know when it’s time to flip the steak.
翻转多次法是每隔一分钟翻转一次,直至牛排烹饪到想要的熟度。多次翻转能使牛排受热更均匀的同时更容易控制牛排的熟度。而且,多次翻转更有利于锁住排内的肉汁!
With the flip often method,? you will be flipping the steaks about every minute. The advantage of this method is that it will lead to a juicer and a more evenly cooked steak. Also, it is easier to control the doneness of the steak.
大家可以两种方法都尝试一下,看看哪个方法更容易把握且煎出来的牛排更美味。为了形成漂亮的烤痕,我这里就用多次翻转法。
Try both out for youself and see which method is easier and produces the best steak for you. In my recipes, i used the flip often method for producing the beautiful grill marks.

3.

一分钟后,再次翻转牛排,这次需要水平于槽纹或者稍稍与槽纹形成角度。

After 1 minute, flip the steak. The steak needs to be horizontally aligned with the grill marks or slightly form angle.

steak_marks

小贴士

怎样烤出完美烤痕?|Make perfect grill marks

我对烤痕有情节,觉得没有烤痕的牛排不够完整。烤痕不但可以增加牛排的美感,而且看上去更专业,有没有有没有?!
要烤出好看的纹格,首先当然要用带槽纹的锅,然后翻转牛排时注意翻转后的位置比原来的位置偏差45~90度,你的牛排表面也就有漂亮的纹格了。
I am a big fan of grill marks! A steak without grill marks is not a beautiful steak. Grill marks can not only add flavour to a steak, but also make your steak look more professional! Don’t you think so?
To produce beautiful grill marks, of course you need to have a grill pan. Then, when you flip over the steak, remember the original to position and flip over 45~90 degree compared to the original position.

4.

翻转后,对半切开蒜头,用切面一头轻轻在牛排表面涂擦;待一分钟后,再翻转一次,依然是水平于槽纹或者稍稍与槽纹形成角度;翻转后同样涂擦蒜头。

Cut a fresh clove of garlic in half and rub the cut side all over the surface of the steaks.; After 1 minute, flip again and make sure this time is also horizontally aligned with the grill marks or slighly form angle. After flip over, rub the garlic on the surface as well.

steak_garlic

小贴士

涂擦蒜头来增加风味|Enhancing with garlic

这个技巧受英国出名大厨Jamie Oliver启发。在他的烹饪节目中,他喜欢在几乎煎好的牛排表面涂擦蒜头和迷迭香来给牛排增加额外的香气。蒜头和迷迭香的香气和牛排非常搭!而我个人喜欢尽量呈现牛排的原味,所以我这里只擦了一层淡淡的蒜香。你也可以尝试像Jamie那样,涂擦蒜香之外,用迷迭香轻拍在牛排表面来添加更多的风味。

Jamie亲自示范:

herbs

In the British famous Chef, Jamie Oliver’s cooking program, he likes to enhance the flavors with garlic and rosemary. These two items are a perfect match with steak. Personally, i prefer a steak with full original flavour. So, i just rub a light layer of garlic flavour. You can try to add both flavours like Jamie does.

5.

在牛排表面抹一层黄油。

Rub a layer of butter on the surface.

steak_butter

小贴士

为什么现在才涂黄油?|Rub butter?

很多人煎牛排犯了一个错误,就是一开始就放黄油。我认为黄油真不适合一开始就放!其中一个主要原因是黄油的烟点低,在高温锅上长时间烹饪很容易因为煮焦而产生一种苦味。所以在将近煎好的时候在表面涂上黄油来增加一点奶香味最适合不过了!
Many people make a mistake when using butter to cook a steak. That is putting the butter at the very beginning. We mentioned before that the smoking point of butter is low. With a low smoking point, the butter will easily burn and produce a bitter flavour under high heat.

6.

待1分钟后,立起牛排煎周边(特别是较厚的牛排)。如果你用的也是西冷牛排,一定要将表面的脂肪层煎脆至微焦。煮不透的脂肪我猜你硬着头皮也很吞下~

After 1 minute, hold up the steak to pan sear the sides. If you are using sirloin as well, it is important to pan sear the fat layer as raw fat doesn’t taste good at all. ?Hold the steak vertically with the fat directly touching the pan until the fat is nice and crispy.

steak_edge

小贴士

牛排要煎多久?|For how long?

牛排的烹饪时间取决于牛排的厚度以及所需要的熟度。这里的做法是煎至medium rare (约3成熟)。理论上2cm厚的西冷牛排需要的时间如下:The time of cooking a steak depends on the thickness and desired doneness.Blue:?每面各1分钟|About 1 min each?sideRare: 每面各1分半钟|About?1??mins per sideMedium rare:?每面各2分钟|About 2 mins per sideMedium: 每面各2分半钟|About 2??mins per sideWell-done steak: 每面各约4-5分钟|About 4-5 minutes

小贴士

怎样知道熟度?|Determining doneness

有一个令人很醉的做法是切开看!千万千万不要切开看!一切,你就等着心疼地看着排内的肉汁全往外流吧。那要怎样做?介绍2个方法:The most silly way is to cut off a piece of the steak to look at how well done it is! Oh well, DO NOT ever do this because this will let all the delicious juices run out of them. So, what should you do?
1. 温度探针法:每个熟度的牛排都有一个大概对应的中心温度。如果你有一个专用的温度探针,将探针插进牛排中心,温度就一目了然,自然而然就能准确并轻易知道牛排的熟度了。Thermometer test: As each doneness has a range of internal temperature, you can put a thermometer in the middle to test the temperature. This is a very precise and straighforward way to determine the exact doneness.
中心温度以及熟度的对应图Internal temperature and donenesssteak_done

2. 手指法:没有专业设备的厨友怎么办?不要紧,第二个方法只需要用到你的一只手。这个方法是利用不同的手势来按压手掌,然后用手指按牛排,对比手掌的感觉和牛排的软硬。手掌的”软硬“程度几乎等于对应牛排熟度的质感。当然,我觉得这个方法也是很讲经验的,你可能需要煎多几块牛排才能找到感觉。

There is also a great little trick. That is the hand method where you compare the feel of the steak to the feel of the thick part of your palm, just under the thumb. The method requires experience and you may need a few more practices before you get the feeling.

手指法的手掌按压点在拇指根部,在大拇指连接手掌处下方2厘米左右的位置。

The comparison point of the finger test is at the base of your thumb, about 2cm below where it connects to you palm.

各熟度的手势示意图

Gestures of different doneness

Rare: 大拇指和食指在捏在一起。

Touch your index finger and thumb together.

steak_done1

 

Medium rare:拇指和中指捏在一起。

Touch your middle finger and thumb together. ?

steak_done2

 

Medium :拇指与无名指捏在一起。

Touch your ring finger and thumb together.

steak_done3

Well done:拇指和小拇指捏在一起。

Touch your pinky (little) finger and thumb together.

steak_done4

噢,漏了一个!Blue/raw(近生)的牛排!近生牛排就是打开手掌,拇指不用捏其他手指,直接按压拇指根部位置对比。

Oh, I miss one! The Blue/raw steak! Actually, fingers not touching at all (palm open) is what raw meat feels like.

不对,还差一个,medium well!!好了,一只手就5只手指,所以现实说明手指法只能测试5个熟度的牛排,不过很多大厨会把medium和medium well合在一起。哈哈,反正大家看着办呗:)

Ah, there is another one, medium well!!Ok, we just have 5 fingers on one hand, so the fact is finger test can only test 5 different doneness of a steaks. Many chefs will combine the medium and medium well. Haha, you guys see what you can do:)

7.

牛排煎好后,从锅中取出静置5-10分钟收汁。

When the steak is cooked, take it out from the pan and leave for 5-10 minutes.

steak_rest

 

小贴士

为什么要静置收汁?|Why resting?

科学实验证明在静放期间肉中的纤维组织可以将排内的肉汁锁住。做好的牛排静放至少5分钟后的口感会更加鲜嫩多汁。Here, pure science comes into play – the fibres of the meat will reabsorb the free-running juices resulting in a moist and tender finish to your steak.

8.

Enjoy!

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