[牛排专题1]好好吃牛排!| Enjoy a steak!

steak1

我曾经觉得让牛排风味不同的仅仅是酱汁罢了。后来对牛排有了更多认识后,发现一块不加任何酱汁的牛排也足以惊艳你的味蕾。这其中的关键是牛排的肉质本身以及其生熟程度。如果想让牛排风味再提升一个层次,那么享用时配上一杯酒体与之匹配的红酒!这种体验简直是完美到没有朋友!如果你也想好好体验一份牛排带给你的完美味觉享受,像行家一样品尝一份牛排,其实你只需要知道以下这些!

I used to feel cheap steak and expensive steak are quite similar. After I know more about steak, I start to be particular about the textures, the level of cooking and the pairing of sauce and wine. I realize that the difference in textures and flavours not only comes from the meat itself, but also the level of cooking, the pairing of sauce and the wine. If you want to taste steak like an expert, learn from the knowledge below!

肉质口感|Cuts and textures

不同牛排取自不同的牛切块,不同的牛切块决定了牛排的肉质口感。

Different steaks comes from different cuts of meat from the cow, different cuts have different textures.

牛的不同切块|Beef cuts

steak2

其实吧,不同牛切块的口感会因为该部位的牛只运动量多少,是否处在脂肪层以及是否带骨架等等而不同。譬如西冷牛排取自牛的后腰脊肉,这是牛只运动量极少的部分,所以肉质非常柔嫩。又因为这部分肉位于牛外脊,所以牛排外层带油花嫩筋的白色脂肪层,从而使得牛肉含一定肥油。菲力牛排则是裹在腰内肉的里脊肉,肉质非常精瘦,绝对是减肥者的首选。

In fact, the textures of different cuts are affected by the amount of movement that the muscle of the cow makes, if the cut is in the fat layer and if the cuts is including bones. For example, Sirloin steak/New York Strip steak is cut from the short loin, which is the part of the cow that rarely moves. Therefore, the meat is very tender. Because this part of the cow is covered with a layer of fat, you can see a white layer of marble fat outside the steak. Therefore, Sirloin steak is usually a little fatty.

常见牛排来自的切块以及肉质口感

The cuts and textures of different steaks

steak3

生熟程度|How do you like it cooked?

究竟牛排要几成熟才适合?

这个问题其实很大程度上取决于个人喜好。越生的牛排口感越鲜嫩,反之,口感越厚重和坚实。

What on earth is the most appropriate level of cooking for a steak? In fact, this question is largely dependant on personal preference. The rarer the steak, the softer and gentler it is. The more well done, the firmer and harder it is.

不同熟度口感的区别

Textures in different levels of cooking

steak4

东方人喜欢偏熟的不带血水的牛排,西方人则更倾向于生口切开呈鲜肉色并渗出血水的原生口感这里不得不提一下在吃牛上无比讲究,堪称世界牛肉研究的领头羊国家—法国的吃牛习惯。在法国,牛排一般是近生熟度(Blue)到三分熟 (Medium Rare),法国大厨甚至会拒绝将牛排煮成全熟!他们注重的是对牛肉原味的追求。所以,如果你在法国点了一份肉质上好的牛排并告知服务员要全熟,切开享用时发现仍带血水。这很有可能只是因为大厨不想辜负一块好肉而已!所以,如果到了法国想像行家一样品尝一份特级的牛排,牛排越生风味越地道!当然,不鼓励为了显逼格而逼自己吞下一块血淋淋的肉哦:)

While Easterners prefer steak that is more cooked and without blood, Westerners enjoy steak rarer and less well cooked. Especially in France, steaks are usually served between blue and medium rare. Chefs in France will even refuse to do a very well-done steak, believing it will spoil the steak by making it too tough. They try to pursue the authentic flavour of the steak. If you are in France and order a good quality steak cooked well-done, you might cut it and find out that it is still pink inside. This is because the chef doesn’t want to waste good quality meat. Therefore, if you want to enjoy a premium steak like an expert, the meat should be cooked the rarer the better.

steak5

搭配酱汁|Matching sauces

作为配角的酱汁,它和牛排的搭配也是根据个人喜好来的。这就是为啥去西餐厅吃牛排时,服务员一般会问你需要配什么酱汁。但是如果要说在国外最常见且最经典的牛排酱汁,那一定少不了以下几种:

As they play supporting roles, the rule of matching sauces with steaks is based on personal preference. This is why when you are going to a restaurant, the waiters will usually ask you what sauce you would like to go with the steak. If you want to talk about the most common and classic steak sauces in western countries, you must count in the followings:

常见的牛排酱汁

Common sauces for steaks

steak6

配酒| Wine pairing

“红酒配红肉,白酒配白肉”是餐酒搭配的黄金法则!基本上,用红酒配牛排绝对不会错。专业的食家和侍酒师讲究的是从微妙的变化中得到的最佳搭配。他们会根据牛排的肉质和生熟程度来选择酒体匹配的红酒。红酒与牛排的搭配绝对是一门复杂的艺术。

The golden rule of pairing wine and meat is “red wine with red meat, white wine with white meat”! Basically, it is never wrong to have a steak with a bottle of red wine. The professional gourmet and sommelier try to seek the best match from tiny differences. On the basis of the steak textures and level of cooking, they will pair the steak with a wine with the right flavour and body to enhance and complement the steak. Pairing wine and steak is a complicated art.

先来看看牛排和红酒的基本搭配原理| Logic behind pairing steak and wine

红葡萄酒中的单宁成分会与牛排的蛋白质结合,从而达到弱化牛排的油腻感并促使牛排增加独特的风味。反过来,牛排中的脂肪和蛋白质又可以弱化葡萄酒中单宁的干涩,使葡萄酒的水果风味更加突出。

The tannin in the red wine will combine with the protein in the steak. This combination will weaken the fat of the steak and enhance its flavour. In other words, the steak’s fat and protein will weaken the bitterness of the tannin in the wine, which will enhance the fruity flavour of a red wine.

很明显,牛排和红酒的搭配归根到底要看是红酒中的单宁成份以及牛排中的脂肪和蛋白质成份。

Obviously, pairing steak with red wine is about the tannin of the red wine and the protein and fat of the steak.

单宁为何物?怎样知道红酒中的单宁含量?|What is Tannin? How to know the level of Tannin?

单宁是葡萄酒中一种酚类物质,尤其在红葡萄酒中含量较高。葡萄酒中的单宁一般是由葡萄籽、皮及梗浸泡发酵而来,或者是萃取橡木内的单宁而来。一瓶红酒中单宁含量的高低其实很大程度上取决于葡萄的品种。譬如,波尔多地区的葡萄品种,例如赤霞珠,梅洛,品丽珠和马尔贝克酿造的红酒单宁含量都较高。

Bordeaux variety grapes are high in tannins. So wines made with grapes such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Verdot and Malec and all found in Brodeux wines are high in tannins.

好吧,简单来说,单宁含量高的葡萄酒,酸度越低,干涩感越强,口感越浓厚。肥腻的牛排选择单宁越强劲的红酒,精瘦的牛排则搭配中度或轻度的单宁红酒。

The higher the level of tannin there is, the more bitter and astringent it is. Simply speaking, steak with more fat should go with a more full bodied red wine with higher tannin levels, leaner steak goes with a lighter and medium bodied red wine with less tannin.

常见牛排与红酒的最佳搭配推荐

Recommendations of steak and wine pairings

steak7

*文字及图片均由CeeChoo西厨编辑制作,均属原创内容!

给我们留言